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What are the 7 Basic Quality Tools

These are the Most used basic quality tools in solving Quality related Problems. These are suitable for those people with little or minimal formal training on Statistics. These are the seven basic Graphical techniques which help in solving vast majority of problems.
The History of these tools is interesting.
In the 1950, Just after the 2nd world war, Japan was concentrating on rebuilding. One of the initiatives was invitation to the legendary American Quality Guru, W. Edwards Deming to Japan by the JUSE(Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers) to train hundreds of Japanese Engineers, Managers and Scholars on the subject of Statistical Process control. During the Hundreds of lectures delivered by Deming, the emphasis was on basic tools which were available on the process control.
Taking Cue from these, Kaoru Ishikawa, at the time an associate professor at the University of Tokyo and a member of JUSE, Developed these tools. His chief desire was to democratize Quality i.e  he wanted to make quality control comprehensible to all workers, and inspired by Deming’s lectures, he formalized the Seven Basic Tools of Quality Control. He believed that  90% of a company’s problems could be improved using these seven tools, and that  they could easily be taught to any member of the organization. This ease of use combined with their graphical nature makes statistical analysis makes interesting to all.
These are listed below.

  1. Check Sheets – A generic Tool which can be used for collection and analysis of data. A structured and prepared form that can be adapted for wide variety of issues
  2. Control Charts – This is a graphical technique,which can be used to study the changes to a process over time
  3. Pareto Chart – This is another graphical technique, which can be used to identify the significance of individual factors
  4. Scatter Chart – This is used to identify the relation between variables, by plotting pairs of numerical data, with one variable on each axis. The points will be falling on a line or a curve, if the variables are related.
  5. Cause and Effect Diagram (Also called as Ishikawa Diagram or Fishbone diagram) – This can be used to structure the brain Storming Sessions. It is used to sort ideas into useful categories. Many Possible Causes are identified for a stated problem and the effect on the problem are identified
  6. Flow Chart (Stratification Charts)- This tool is used to identify the patterns within the data collected from multiple sources and clubbed together. It is used to identify the meaning of the vast data by identifying patterns.
  7. Histogram – It looks very much like a bar chart. it is used to identify the frequency of occurrence of a variable in a set of data.
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