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First Principle of SPC – No two things are exactly alike.

From the past experience of many generations,  we can clearly understand that things are never exactly alike. All you can find is two similar things. Even the “peas of pod” which look alike, may show some differences among them when we have a closer look. The peas are different in size, shape, colour, softness, or some thing else.
If we apply this to a product, say some products, parts or components, we know that no two manufactured parts are exactly alike each other.  In one way or the other, these parts will be slightly different in Size, Shape, or finish.
If two parts are looking alike, the differences can be found if the resolution of the measurement. The more precise you are in measuring, the differences are more clearly understood.
This is a basic problem, which will get us into trouble for making parts interchangeable, which the main aim of mass production. To work around the problem, we use tolerances.

However, our aim is to keep the variation between the parts to be minimum and as small as possible.
The above discussion is the first principle of SPC. Based on the above discussion, we can go to the second principle of Statistical Process Control (SPC) – Variation in a process or product can be measured.

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